Epidemiology and Health (epiH) is an open access electronic journal publishing papers in all areas of epidemiology and public health. The scope is wide-ranging: including descriptive, analytical and molecular epidemiology; primary preventive measures; screening approaches and secondary prevention; clinical epidemiology; and all aspects of communicable and non-communicable diseases prevention. The epiH publishes original research, and also welcomes review articles and meta-analyses, cohort profiles and data profiles, epidemic and case investigations, descriptions and applications of new methods, and discussions of research theory or public health policy. We give special consideration to papers from developing countries.
epiH follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication (http://www.icmje.org), if otherwise not described below.
Research Ethics and Informed Consent
For the policies on research and publication ethics not stated in the Instructions, Guidelines on Good Publication (http://publicationethics.org/) or Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals (http://kamje.or.kr/) can be applied.
Authorship credit should be based on: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreeing to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that the questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authors should meet these 4 conditions. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged as contributors not be authors.
The addition of an author to a manuscript under review is possible only with the editor’s approval. Changes in authorship cannot be made after the manuscript is accepted for publication.
Corresponding author and first author: epiH does not allow multiple corresponding authors for one article. Only one author should correspond with the editorial office and readers for one article, even if it is reporting a multicenter study. epiH does accept notice of equal contribution for the first author when the study was clearly performed by co-first authors.
2. Originality, Plagiarism and Duplicate Publication
Submitted manuscripts must not have been previously published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. Submitted manuscripts are screened for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication by CrossCheck (http://www.ithenticate.com/) upon arrival. If plagiarism or duplicate publication related to the papers of this journal is detected, the manuscripts may be rejected, the authors will be announced in the journal, and their institutions will be informed. There will also be penalties for the authors.
A letter of permission is required for any and all material that has been published previously. It is the responsibility of the author to request permission from the publisher for any material that is being reproduced. This requirement applies to text, figures, and tables.
3. Secondary Publication
It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the conditions of secondary publication of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).
4. Conflict of Interest Statement
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.
5. Statement of Human and Animal Right
Clinical research should be done in accordance of the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, outlined in the Helsinki Declaration (https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-formedical-research-involving-human-subjects/). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human subjects should not be identifiable, such that patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.
6. Description of Participants
Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.
7. Statement of Informed Consent and Institutional Review Board Approval
Copies of written informed consent documents should be kept for studies on human subjects. For clinical studies of human subjects, a certificate, agreement, or approval by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the author’s institution is required. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.
8. Process for Managing Research and Publication Misconduct
When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, an undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and so on, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are carried out by the Editorial Board. Documented cases of plagiarism or data fabrication could lead to a 3-year ban on the authors with regard to future publication in of epiH and/or retraction of their papers.
9. Editorial Responsibilities
The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics: guidelines for retracting articles; maintenance of the integrity of the academic record; preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and excluding plagiarism and fraudulent data. The editors maintain the following responsibilities: responsibility and authority to reject and accept articles; avoiding any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept; promoting publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and preservation of the anonymity of reviewers.
10. Registration of Clinical Trial Research
It is recommended that any research dealing with a clinical trial be registered at on appropriate online public registry. Manuscript with non-registered interventional clinical trials will not be considered for publication.
11. Data Sharing Statement
epiH accepts the ICMJE Recommendations for data sharing statement policy (http://icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). All manuscripts reporting clinical trial results should submit a data sharing statement following the ICMJE guidelines.
Manuscripts should be submitted to epiH in English or Korean. Manuscripts should be written and numbered in the following sequence: cover letter, title page, abstract, key words, manuscript body, acknowledgements, references, tables, and figures.
Descriptions appearing in each article are the responsibility of the authors and not that of epiH.
1. Cover Letter
A cover letter should include the following: (a) a concise summary of why the article is a valuable addition to scientific literature, (b) briefly relate the study to previously published work, (c) specify the article type (original article, review, brief communication, etc.), and (d) details of any previous interactions with epiH regarding the submitted manuscript.
2. Title Page
The title page should include the following: (a) a concise and descriptive title, (b) full name of the author(s) and their affiliations, (c) details of funding source(s), and (d) name, address, and e-mail address of the corresponding author. If a title has more than 15 words, a separate running title of not more than eight English words should be provided. Including specifics of the study design in the title is recommended. Abbreviations should not be used in the title.
Abstracts should be no more than 250 words and consist of four sections labelled. Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Unstructured abstracts are allowed for other types of papers (editorials, case reports, special articles, and cohort [or data] profiles). References should not be included in abstracts and abbreviations should be used sparingly.
4. Keywords (Medical Subject Headings)
Authors should provide a list of three to six keywords below the abstract. Keywords should be selected from main headings listed under Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in Index Medicus published by the US National Library of Medicine (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html); if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms, present terms may be used.
5. Manuscript Body
The main document should be submitted as an editable word document (not as a pdf). Papers should not normally exceed 3,500 words except review articles. Pages should be numbered consecutively. The manuscript body should be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Materials (subjects) and Methods, Results, and Discussion. A brief paragraph should be included at the end of the discussion section to clarify the main conclusion. Abbreviations should be spelled out in full the first time they appear in the manuscript body with the abbreviations in brackets. Overuse of abbreviations, except for abbreviations of standard measurement units, should be avoided. All references in the text should be cited in English. In text, tables, and legends, references with Arabic numerals should be identified in square brackets, as ,  and so on. Authors’ last names should be cited in English. For two authors, the names should be connected by the conjunction “&”. To cite three or more authors, the abbreviation “et al.” should follow the first author’s last name. Generic names should be used while mentioning the names of drugs. Names of commercial drugs can be used only when it is important for the purpose of the study. All measurements should be written in Arabic numbers. When reporting probability, a lowercase “p” should be used. Percent should be written using the symbol “%” throughout. Length should be expressed in the metric system, temperature in degree Celsius, blood pressure as mmHg, and hemoglobin as g/dL. All other measures should be written as per the International System of Units (SI Units). There should be a space between the value of the measure and its unit.
6. Ethics Statement
The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of #### (IRB no. ##-##-###). Informed consent was confirmed (or waived) by the IRB.
7. Supplementary Materials
If there are any supplementary materials to help the understanding of readers or too great amount data to be included in the main text, it may be placed as supplementary data or appendix. Whole manuscripts, questionnaire form in local or regional languages or raw data is the example of data in appendix. They should be numbered in the manuscript by the numerical order in which it is cited. Supplementary material(s) will be published as submitted without editing.
8. Conflict of Interest
It should be disclosed here according to the statement in the Research and Publication Ethics regardless of existence of conflict of interest. If the authors have nothing to disclose, please state: “The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare for this study.
If necessary, persons who have made substantial contributions, but who have not met the criteria for authorship, are acknowledged here. All sources of funding applicable to the study should be stated here explicitly.
10. Author Contributions
epiH participates in the CRediT standard for author contributions. The contributions of all authors must be described using the CRediT Taxonomy of author roles. For each of the categories below, please enter the initials of the authors who contributed in that category. If no one contributed in a category, you may leave that box blank.
The corresponding author is responsible for completing this information at submission, and it is expected that all authors will have reviewed, discussed, and agreed to their individual contributions ahead of this time.
Examples of authors’ contributions are as followings:
Conceptualization: MK. Data curation: MK. Formal analysis: HKC, DHH, SSH, JKJ. Funding acquisition: MI. Methodology: MK, HCK, HKC. Project administration: HKC. Visualization: MK, HCK, JMK. Writing – original draft: MK, HKC, DHH. Writing – review & editing: MK, SSH, JKJ, HCK, JMK.
11. ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID)
ORCID of all authors are recommended to be provided. To have ORCID, authors should register in the ORCID web site available from: http://orcid.org/. Registration is free to every researchers in the world.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of references used in the manuscript. All references should be written in English. When the original author has not given the article an English title, authors can translate the title with the notation, “Korean, author’s translation.” All authors of a cited work should be listed if there are six or fewer authors. The first six authors should be listed followed by “et al.” if there are more than seven authors. References should be numbered sequentially and cited in the same order as in the body of the manuscript. References should be cited according to the system of the American National Library of Medicine’s Index Medicus, as shown in the examples below. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine).
Wiwanitkit V. The current status of Zika virus in Southeast Asia. Epidemiol Health 2016;38:e2016026.
Slattery ML, Janerich DT. The epidemiology of neural defect: a review of dietary intake and related factors as etiologic agents. Am J Epidemiol 1991;133:526-540.
Go ER, Park BJ, Jung SH. Clinical tests and data analysis for the evaluation of new drugs. Seoul: Shin-Kwang Co.; 1998, p. 25- 26 (Korean).
Maunsner JS, Kramer S. Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Co.; 1985, p. 156-166.
Chapter in Books
Cullen MR. Multiple chemical sensitivities. In: Last JM, Wallace RB, editors. Maxcy-Rosenau-Last public health & preventive medicine. 13th ed. East Norwalk: Appleton & Lange; 1992, p. 459-462.
Kim SR. A study on the comparison of inpatients healthcare utilization between the Medicaid recipients and the insured [dissertation]. Seoul: Yonsei University; 1999 (Korean).
13. Tables and Figures
Use of tables, figures, and photographs that supplement the text is recommended, but should not duplicate material found in the body of the manuscript. Tables and figures should be prepared with separate file. They should be numbered in Arabic numerals, in the same sequence in which they appear in the text, and their approximate locations should be marked in the manuscript body (Table 1). Particular care should be taken to make tables and figures self-explanatory with adequate headings and footnotes. The first letter of a title should be in upper case, with the rest of the letters in lower case. The same principle applies to the content of a table or figure. Tables should not have horizontal or vertical dividing lines. Each table and figure should be presented in a separate page and should not exceed one page per table or figure, if possible. If a table takes up more than one page, it should be marked with the word “continued” at the end of each page. Explanations for and abbreviations used in tables and figures should be included as footnotes. Footnotes should be indicated by superscript numbers, in (1, 2, 3...). All numbers should be expressed to 2 digits to the right of the decimal points after rounding, unless specified otherwise. A p-value may be indicated as follows in the footnotes: †p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, etc.
14. Key Message (Korean)
For Korean authors, the author summary should be in Korean. The first sentence should give details of existing facts that led to the present work. The last sentence should state, as concisely as possible, the significance of the results with regard to health and/or an illness. Listing of statistical numbers should be avoided, unless it is absolutely necessary for proper understanding of the author summary. The files of published articles are supplied through an icon “Korean Summary” in the electronic table of contents on the website of epiH.
Categories of Papers
1. Systematic Reviews (includes Meta-analyses)
These articles present a comprehensive search and appraisal of accumulating evidence of important public health topics, using a systematic approach. A systematic review may, or may not, include a meta-analysis. There should be an unstructured abstract of no more than 250 words. The text should not exceed 5,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, figures, references, and onlineonly material) with up to 100 references, and no more than a total of 10 tables and figures.
2. Original Articles
Manuscripts that report the results of original quantitative or qualitative public health research are published as original articles (up to 3,500 words of main text, not including abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material). A structured abstract of 250 words is required, with up to seven tables and figures, and no more than 50 references. The main text must follow the standard epiH format, with an introduction and separate sections for the following: Methods, Results, and Discussion. This format is the highest priority for epiH and represents the majority of papers published.
3. Special Articles (includes Methods, Hypothesis, and Lectures)
This category is the articles on important topics related to epidemiologic methods, or hypothesis which is a forum for ideas in medicine and public health. The text is limited to 3,500 words, with up to 50 references and no more than seven tables and figures. Authors seeking to submit articles for lectures on a special topic should first contact the editor.
Editorials in epiH are considered opinion pieces. They may be commissioned by members of the formal editorial team, or on occasion, reformatted as editorials from other submitted papers. Editorials are 3,500 words in length, and can have up to 30 references. Subheadings may be used to guide readers through the major arguments in the text. Authors may upload suggested images as supplemental files during submission. The editor-in-chief triages editorials to members of the formal editorial team, based on their expertise in the field.
5. Cohort Profiles (includes Data Profiles)
Cohort profiles have a main text word limit of 3,500 words, and include an unstructured abstract, a maximum of seven tables and figures, and up to 50 references. See the detailed instruction.
6. Case Reports
The main text for case reports is limited to 3,500 words, and can include an unstructured abstract, a maximum of three tables and figures, and up to 30 references.
7. Perspectives (includes Statistics and Critical Commentaries)
Perspectives present a forum for raising awareness about relevant public health issues. They provide authors an opportunity to offer their critical evaluation of recent trends and advances in epidemiology and public health. Perspectives have a main text word limit of 3,500 words; they can include an unstructured abstract, a maximum of one table or figure, and up to 30 references. Statistics can include around of 10 tables and figures.
8. Brief Communications
Brief communications can report preliminary or novel findings. The main text is limited to 3,500 words, which excludes a structured abstract, a maximum of five tables and figures, and up to 30 references. The main text for brief communications must follow the standard: epiH original article format, with an introduction and separate sections for methods, results, and discussion.
9. Letters to the Editor and Responses
Letters to the Editor, referring to an epiH article are encouraged up to three months from the date of its publication. An abstract is not required. Editors reserve the right to edit and abridge letters and publish responses. Letters may include a maximum of 30 references.
10. Epidemiologic Investigations
The main text is limited to 3,500 words, which excludes a structured abstract, a maximum of seven tables and figures, and up to 50 references. The main text for epidemiologic investigations must follow the standard epiH original article format, with an introduction and separate sections for methods, results, and discussion. Key features of articles of epiH publishes are as shown in the below Table 1.
Table 1. Recommended maximums for articles submitted to Epidemiology and Health
Special article (including methods, hypothesis, and lecture)
Cohort profile (including data profile)
Systematic review (includes Meta-analysis)
Manuscript Submission and Review Process
1. Manuscript Submission
Manuscripts should be submitted by online system (http://submit.e-epih.org/). If there are difficulties, please feel free to contact the editorial office (https://www.e-epih.org/about/contact.php). Manuscripts can be submitted at any time. For manuscript submission, original files are required; PDF files or HWP files are not accepted.
2. Review Process
Upon submission of a manuscript, the editorial board at epiH will review the paper for appropriateness of content. Articles are reviewed by two or three experts in the field. The authors’ names and affiliations are removed during peer review. Double-blind peer reviews take an average of two months to complete. If authors request quick review process, it will take less than two weeks. The board of editors reserves the right to edit a manuscript for phrasing, style, and overall length at any stage prior to publication, while taking utmost care to maintain the scientific accuracy of the manuscript. Based on comments from reviewers and editors, authors may be asked to revise their manuscript. Authors are required to submit a letter explaining how they dealt with all comments and questions raised by reviewers and editors. If revisions cannot be submitted within one month, author(s) may request a one month grace period. If the revised manuscript is not submitted within the stipulated period, the manuscript will be automatically rejected. Once submitted, manuscripts will not be returned.
Upon acceptance for publication, one file of the original manuscript should be submitted to the journal office. The publication schedule is based on the order of submission of finalized manuscripts. Dates of submission, acceptance and published are provided on the journal’s website.
1. Page Proofs
Page proofs are sent to the corresponding authors by e-mail as PDF files. Authors are responsible for the content of page proofs. All page proofs should be read carefully, corrected if necessary, and returned within 48 hours of receipt. Corrections should be restricted to typesetting errors. Changes or additions to the edited manuscript are not allowed at this stage.
2. Page Charges: Nil
The Korean Society of Epidemiology will bear the cost of publication of accepted manuscripts.
Copyright, Open Access and Creative Commons License
The Korean Society of Epidemiology owns the copyright of all manuscripts published in epiH. Authors are required to sign the journal’s “Authorship Responsibility and Copyright Transfer” form, which is downloadable from our homepage (https://submit.e-epih.org/), should be signed by all authors, scanned and uploaded once a manuscript has been accepted. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining signatures of all authors to obtain their consent for copyright transfer. The author is responsible for the content of both the original, and the reviewed and edited manuscript, accuracy of references and quotes, and any violations of the copyright agreement.
2. Open Access
epiH is an open access journal. It also follows the open access policy of PubMed Central at US National Library of Medicine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/). All the content of the journal is available immediately upon publication without embargo period.
3. Creative Commons License
Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ((http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. To use the tables or figures of the journal in other periodicals, books or other media, the process of permission request to the publisher is not necessary.
It is recommended that authors include and identify essential information in the manuscript related to study design. Additionally, it is recommended that authors refer to the guidelines listed in the following Table 2.
Table 2. Reporting guidelines for specific study designs
Any inquiry including submissions, the review process, certification of acceptance, or copyrights should be directed to the editor from the website (https://www.e-epih.org/about/contact.php) or sent via surface mail or fax to:
Editor-in-Chief: Moran Ki
Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer
Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10408, Korea
Tel: +82-2-745-0662, Fax: +82-2-764-8328
Editorial Office: Korean Society of Epidemiology
Education Building, Seoul National University College of Medicine,
103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea
Tel: +82-2-745-0662, Fax: +82-2-764-8328
NOTICE: These instructions to authors will be applied beginning
with the June 2019.
Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si Gyeonggi-do, 10408, Korea
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